This document is one of More SageMath Tutorials. You may edit it on github. \(\def\NN{\mathbb{N}}\) \(\def\ZZ{\mathbb{Z}}\) \(\def\QQ{\mathbb{Q}}\) \(\def\RR{\mathbb{R}}\) \(\def\CC{\mathbb{C}}\)
How to contribute to Sage¶
Sébastien Labbé¶

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¶  If the slide text doesn’t fit in your browser window, try decreasing the text size.Type
T
if you have trouble viewing this presentation.Sage Days 28
Orsay, France, January 1719th 2011
GNU General Public Licence¶
Sage is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 (GPLv2) which provides four kinds of freedom:
 Freedom to run the program
 Freedom to access the code
 Freedom to redistribute the program to anyone
 Freedom to improve the software
While all users of Sage make use of the first freedom, in this talk, we will see how to appropriate the other three.
Twenty Two Easy Steps¶

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¶  Find a bug
 Build the documentation
 Sage trac server
 Update the current patch
 Create a ticket
 Export a patch
 Clone your Sage
 Verify the patch
 Mercurial
 Upload the patch
 Enable Mercurial queues
 More on Mercurial queues
 Create an empty patch
 Dowload a patch
 Fix the bug
 Edit the series file
 View your changes
 Reviewing a patch
 Test the changes
 Positive review or Needs work
 Run tests
 Do some cleaning
1. Find a bug¶
That’s the easiest part. Choose one amongst this
made for Sage Days 28 or browse the
During this talk, instead of fixing a bug I am going to introduce one in the inverse method of a permutation.
2. Sage trac server¶
In Sage, modifications are tracked on a web site called Sage trac. Every bug gets assigned a number. For instance, the number #10484 refers to the bug called Chinese remainder code raises an error when called with Python ints. On the ticket, one can see that:
 The bug was reported and solved by David Loeffler (UK) in December 2010.
 The ticket was positively reviewed by Robert Bradshaw (USA) and Mike Hansen.
 The solution was merged in
sage4.6.2
by Jeroen Demeyer (Belgium) on January 11th 2011.
One can also look at the solution, download it, test it, etc.
3. Create a ticket¶
In order to create a ticket:
 Create an account on http://trac.sagemath.org/sage_trac/register
 Login to your account
 Make sure the ticket does not already exists.
 Create ticket
 In the description field, explain how should someone else understand and/or reproduce the bug.
I create the imaginary ticket #12345 for introducing a useless print
statement in the method that computes the inverse of a permutation.
4. Clone your version of Sage¶
 Clone Sage and create your branch (Do it right now because it might take some time)
sage clone slabbe
This creates a new directory called sageslabbe
in the devel
repository:
slabbe@pol ~/Applications/sage4.6.1/devel $ ls l
drwxrxrx 2 slabbe staff 68 14 jan 03:59 old/
lrwxrxrx 1 slabbe staff 9 18 jan 15:01 sage > sagemain/
drwxrxrx 23 slabbe staff 782 18 jan 01:42 sagemain/
drwxrxrx 24 slabbe staff 816 17 jan 01:50 sageslabbe/
lrwxrxrx 1 slabbe staff 11 14 jan 03:42 sagenb > sagenbmain/
drwxrxrx 21 slabbe staff 714 14 jan 03:41 sagenbmain/

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Build the main branch  Build my branch slabbe  Print the current branch 
sage b main 
sage b slabbe 
sage branch 
5. Mercurial¶
Sage uses the program Mercurial ( hg or sage hg ) to manage all of its source code. Mercurial stores the evolution of every single file of Sage since the beginning.
Since I am too lazy to write sage hg everytime I use Mercurial, I added
the following line to my ~/.bashrc
file:
alias hg='sage hg'
I verify that it works:
slabbe@pol ~ $ hg version
Mercurial Distributed SCM (version 1.6.4)
Copyright (C) 20052010 Matt Mackall <mpm@selenic.com> and others
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO
warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
5. Mercurial¶
 hg log
 Print the revision history of the specified files or the entire project.
slabbe@pol ~/Applications/sage4.6.1/devel/sagemain $ hg log
changeset: 15205:f24ce048fa66
tag: tip
user: Jeroen Demeyer
date: Tue Jan 11 08:10:26 2011 +0100
summary: 4.6.1
...
changeset: 0:039f6310c6fe
user: tornaria
date: Sat Feb 11 01:13:08 2006 +0000
summary: [project @ original sage0.10.12]
 hg update
 Update the repository’s working directory to the specified changeset.
6. Enable Mercurial queues¶
Mercurial queues is an extension to Mercurial that allows one to easily
work with collections of patches. To allow Mercurial queues, edit (or create)
the file ~/.hgrc
and make sure it contains the line hgext.mq = in
the extensions section:
[ui]
username = Sebastien Labbe <hidden adress email>
[extensions]
hgext.mq =
color =
[alias]
qstatus = status rev 2:.
Warning
The line hgext.mq=
is an indispensable for the next steps.
7. Create an empty patch¶
cd to your branch:
cd Applications/sage4.6.1/devel/sageslabbe
Create a new empty patch:
hg qnew trac_12345add_useless_printsl.patch
8. Fix the bug¶
Find the file containing the bug
Personnally I found the file permutation.py
here:
sage4.6.1/devel/sageslabbe/sage/combinat/permutation.py
Find the solution to the bug
Edit the source code accordingly, save and quit
9. View your changes¶
Now, you may use the following Mercurial commands to look at your local changes.
hg status shows changed files since last hg qnew (or hg qrefresh):
slabbe@pol ~/Applications/sage4.6.1/devel/sagecombinat/sage/combinat $ hg status
M sage/combinat/permutation.py
hg diff shows differences since last hg qnew (or hg qrefresh)
slabbe@pol ~/Applications/sage4.6.1/devel/sagecombinat/sage/combinat $ hg diff
diff git a/sage/combinat/permutation.py b/sage/combinat/permutation.py
 a/sage/combinat/permutation.py
+++ b/sage/combinat/permutation.py
@@ 1208,6 +1208,7 @@ class Permutation_class(CombinatorialObj
sage: Permutation([2, 4, 1, 5, 3]).inverse()
[3, 1, 5, 2, 4]
"""
+ print "YO !!!! Let's inverse some permutations !!!"
w = range(len(self))
for i,j in enumerate(self):
w[j1] = i+1
10. Test the changes¶
 Build sage
sage b
 Verify the effects of the modification
 Run
sage
sage: p = Permutation([4,3,2,5,1])
sage: p.inverse()
YO !!!! Let's inverse some permutations !!!
[5, 3, 2, 1, 4]
That’s great: we are now able to modify Sage.
11. Run tests¶
 Make sure that all examples in the source code still work
sage t <files>
slabbe@pol ~/Applications/sage4.6.1/devel/sageslabbe/sage/combinat $ sage t permutation.py
sage t "devel/sageslabbe/sage/combinat/permutation.py"
**********************************************************************
File "/Users/slabbe/Applications/sage4.6.1/devel/sageslabbe/sage/combinat/permutation.py", line 1206:
sage: Permutation([3,8,5,10,9,4,6,1,7,2]).inverse()
Expected:
[8, 10, 1, 6, 3, 7, 9, 2, 5, 4]
Got:
YO !!!! Let's inverse some permutations !!!
[8, 10, 1, 6, 3, 7, 9, 2, 5, 4]

The following tests failed:
sage t "devel/sageslabbe/sage/combinat/permutation.py"
Total time for all tests: 10.4 seconds
If tests failed, one should edit files again…
12. Build the documentation¶
Build the documentation and make sure there are no errors or warnings:
sage b && sage docbuild reference html
Open the html version of documentation in your browser and make sure the documentation looks OK:
open ~/Applications/sage4.6.1/devel/sage/doc/output/html/en/reference/sage/combinat/permutation.html
13. Update the current patch¶
When the bug is fixed, once we made sure every tests pass and that the documentation builds fine, then we can update the current patch with hg qrefresh to reflect the changes:
hg qrefresh
No changes are shown anymore by hg status or hg diff:
hg status
hg diff
Modifications are now in the patch. See hg qstatus or hg qdiff:
hg qstatus
hg qdiff
14. Export a patch¶
Add a commit message to the patch:
hg qrefresh m "#12345: add a useless print in the inverse method of a permutation"
Export the patch with hg export:
hg export trac_12345add_useless_printsl.patch >
~/Documents/tmp/trac_12345add_useless_printsl.patch
The command hg export also adds informations in the patch (author name, date, …).
Note
Personnaly, I added the following alias to my ~/.bashrc
:
alias qtoptotmp='hg export `hg qtop` > ~/Documents/tmp/`hg qtop`'
15. Verify the content the patch¶
Here is an example of a patch exported by Mercurial for the imaginary ticket #12345. It contains information about the author, the date, the commit message we just wrote and finally the complete diff.
trac_12345add_useless_printsl.patch:
# HG changeset patch
# User Sebastien Labbe <hidden adress email>
# Date 1295311529 3600
# Node ID 4a6379cf0c965e1ce309846cbcb9f864932a3b6c
# Parent 83e5e45a8935ac627c45ed14042bbebafeb1a800
#12345: add a useless print in the inverse method of a permutation
diff git a/sage/combinat/permutation.py b/sage/combinat/permutation.py
 a/sage/combinat/permutation.py
+++ b/sage/combinat/permutation.py
@@ 1208,6 +1208,7 @@ class Permutation_class(CombinatorialObj
sage: Permutation([2, 4, 1, 5, 3]).inverse()
[3, 1, 5, 2, 4]
"""
+ print "YO !!!! Let's inverse some permutations !!!"
w = range(len(self))
for i,j in enumerate(self):
w[j1] = i+1
16. Upload the patch on Sage trac¶
Upload the patch on Sage trac
You can mention things like “tested on sage4.6.1” in the text box when uploading the ticket.
Make sure the patch was correctly uploaded by looking at it directly on the web page.
Set the ticket to needs review
You may ask somebody to review your ticket.
17. More on Mercurial queues¶
Other useful Mercurial commands when patches multiplies:
 hg qnew
 Create a new patch
 hg qnew
 …
 hg qpop
 Move a patch from the applied stack to the unapplied one
 hg qpush
 Move a patch from the unapplied stack to the applied one
 hg qtop
 Show the current patch
 hg qseries
 Print all of the patches in order
18. Dowload a patch¶
A feature available on a Sage Trac ticket interests you? You want to review a ticket?
Download a patch!
Insert a patch into the series after the last applied patch with hg qimport:
hg qimport ~/Downloads/trac_65321nicefeatureAA.patch
Warning
Do NOT use the command hg import as it will import the changes in the current patch.
19. Edit the series file¶
You can change the order in which the patches are applied. To do so, simply edit the series file:
slabbe@pol ~/Applications/sage4.6.1/devel/sageslabbe $ cd .hg/patches/
slabbe@pol ~/Applications/sage4.6.1/devel/sageslabbe/.hg/patches $ vim series
Make sure the patch you are reviewing is the first patch to be applied:
slabbe@pol ~/Applications/sage4.6.1/devel/sageslabbe/.hg/patches $ cat series
trac_65321nicefeatureAA.patch
A.patch
B.patch
C.patch
Warning
20. Reviewing a patch¶
Visit the Reviewing a patch Section of the Sage Developer’s Guide. Also, make sure you read William Stein’s blog post about reviewing a Sage trac ticket.
 Make sure the patch applies on Sage without conflicts:
hg qpush
andhg qpop
Experiment the functionality proposed in the patch.
 Make sure the bug described in the ticket is fixed.
 Make sure the patch does not introduce any new bug.
 Run tests on the affected files.
sage t <affected_files>
20. Reviewing a patch¶
 Test the entire Sage library.
sage testall long
 Ensure that the documentation builds fine:
sage docbuild reference html
 Check for full 100% doctest coverage:
sage coverage <file>
Once you’ve tested the patch, report any failures on the Trac page for the ticket. Make suggestions about simplifying the code or fixing typos you noticed.
21. Positive review or Needs work¶
Three cases may happen:
 Needs work
 Mark it as needs work if there is anything to do.
 Positive review
 Otherwise, mark it as positive review, and mention in a comment all the things you checked.
 Delegate
 If you don’t feel experienced enough for that, add a comment on the Trac page explaining what you have checked, what the results were, and that you think someone more experienced should take a look.
21. Positive review or Needs work¶
Note
22. Do some cleaning¶
Delete an (unapplied) patch from the queue:
hg qdelete trac_65321nicefeatureAA.patch
Erase your branch. Of course, do this only if you don’t care about your local changes:
rm rf sageslabbe
References¶
Reviewing a Sage trac ticket, William Stein’s blog post, October 31, 2010.
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